Browsing category logarithms

Powers

“Here’s a quick one,” suggested a fellow tutor. “Prove that $2^{50} < 3^{33}$.” Easy, I thought: but I knew better than to say it aloud. First approach “I know that $9 > 8$,” I said, checking on my fingers. “So if $2^3 < 3^2$, then $2^{150} < 3^{100}$ and $2^{50}

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Ask Uncle Colin: An Uncommon Logarithm

Dear Uncle Colin, I'm a bit stumped by a logs question with a variable base: $\log_{\sqrt[3]{x+3}}(x^3 + 10x^2 + 31x + 30) = 9$. I know the basics of logarithms, but this is currently beyond me. -- Obtaining Underwhelming Grade, Having To Review Every Definition Hello, OUGHTRED, and thanks for

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How the Mathematical Ninja approximates $\ln(5)$

"Isn't it somewhere around $\phi$?" asked the student, brightly. "That number sure crops up in a lot of places!" The Mathematical Ninja's eyes narrowed. "Like shells! And body proportions! And arrawk!" Hands dusted. The Mathematical Ninja stood back. "The Vitruvian student!" The student arrawked again as the circular machine he

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Ask Uncle Colin: How do I find the power?

Dear Uncle Colin, The equation $67.5 = 10(1.0915)^{10-n} + 30(1.0915)^{10-2n}$ cropped up in a question. Excel can solve that numerically, but I can't solve it on paper! Any ideas? Problems Occur When Exponentials Recur Hi, POWER, and thanks for your message! That's an ugly one. First thing: beware of the

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Ask Uncle Colin: A Huge Power Of Two

Dear Uncle Colin, I've been asked to find $2^{64}$ without a calculator, to four significant figures. How would you go about this? -- Large Exponent, Horrific Multiplication, Extremely Repetitive Hi, LEHMER! To get a rough answer, I'd usually start with the rule of thumb that $2^{10} \approx 10^3$. I'd conclude

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Ask Uncle Colin: How did they get $\ln(50)$?

Dear Uncle Colin, I get $-\frac{\ln(0.02)}{0.03}$ as my answer to a question. They have $\frac{100\ln(50)}{3}$. Numerically, they seem to be the same, but they look completely different. What gives? -- Polishing Off Weird Exponents, Really Stuck Dear POWERS, What you need here are the log laws (to show that $-\ln(0.02)=\ln(50)$,

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A frankly ludicrous bit of paper arithmetic

Some time ago, someone asked Uncle Colin what the last two digits of $19^{1000}$ were. That caused few problems. However, Mark came up with a follow-up question: how would you estimate $19^{1000}$? I like this question, and set myself some rules: No calculators (obviously) Only rough memorised numbers ($e \approx

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Ask Uncle Colin: A Limiting Issue

Dear Uncle Colin, I have a problem with a limit! I need to figure out what $\left( \tan \left(x\right) \right)^x$ is as $x \rightarrow 0$. -- Brilliant Explanation Required Now! Our Understanding's Limited; L'Hôpital's Inept Right, BERNOULLI, stop badmouthing L'Hôpital and let's figure out this limit. It's clearly an indeterminate

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How the Mathematical Ninja estimates logarithms

"$\ln$", said the student, "of 123,456,789." He sighed, contemplated reaching for a calculator, and thought better of it. "18.4," said the Mathematical Ninja, absent-mindedly. "A bit more. 18.63." The student diligently wrote the number down, the Mathematical Ninja half-heartedly pretended to visit some violence on him, and the student squeaked

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Ask Uncle Colin: A logarithmic coincidence?

Dear Uncle Colin, I noticed that $2^{\frac{1}{1,000,000}} = 1.000 000 693 147 2$ or so, pretty much exactly $\left(1 + \frac{1}{1,000,000} \ln(2)\right)$. Is that a coincidence? Nice Interesting Numbers; Jarring Acronym Dear NINJA, The easiest way to see that it's not a coincidence is to check out $3^{\frac{1}{1,000,000}} $, which

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