Dear Uncle Colin,
I’m struggling to make sense of questions about moments in M1. Can you help?
-- Failing Equilibrium-Related Moments… All Torque!
Hi, FERMAT! That’s a bit more general than the kind of question I usually answer, but no matter!
Here’s the briefest theory of equilibrium I can come up with.
A body is in equilibrium if it is
- in force balance (that is, the sum of all of the force vectors is zero).
- in moment balance (that is, the signed sum of the moments is zero).
What that means in practice for you in M1 moments questions is:
- The total of the upward forces is the same and the total of the downward forces.
- The total of the clockwise moments about any fixed point is equal to the sum of the counterclockwise moments.
The moment of a force about a point is calculated as the (perpendicular) distance between the point and the force, multiplied by the magnitude of the force.
E.g: a force of 5N downward acting 3m to the right of a given point exerts a clockwise moment of 15Nm.
In terms of strategy, I recommend you…:
- Draw a big picture. No, bigger than that.
- Identify, draw and label all of the forces. Look out especially for reaction forces and the weight of the beam. (If it’s a uniform beam, the force acts in its centre.) If you don’t know a force’s magnitude, give it a name.
- Set up an equation for the forces: total up = total down. Simplify, and solve if possible. Update your diagram if necessary.
- Pick a point to take moments about. While any point will work, it’s often good to pick one where a force of unknown magnitude is acting.
- Work out the distance from each force to the point. Again, if a distance is unknown, give it a name.
- Set up an equation for the moments: total cw = total ccw. Simplify, and solve if possible.
- If it’s not possible, you may need simultaneous equations; alternatively, you may need to reread the question to see if there’s something you missed.
Hope that helps, FERMAT!
-- Uncle Colin
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